As the name ‘cryptography’ implies, the original purpose of cryptography was to hide something that had been written. The first indications of cryptography go back almost as fas as the origin of writing. Today though, cryptography can be used to hide the meaning of information in any form, such as data stored on a disk or messages in transit through a communication network. Cryptography can also be applied to software, graphics or voice, that is, it can be applied to anything that can be digitally coded. Thus, today cryptography has a much wider application than ‘secrecy’. Genesis and Application of Cryptography.
Genesis and Application of Cryptography
When electronic payments are sent through a network, the biggest risk is that the payment messages will alter or bogus messages introduced and the risk that someone reads the message may be of a minor significance. What needs to be protected in this case is the ‘integrity’ of the messages being carried. In practice, we cannot entirely prevent someone from tampering with the network and changing the messages, but if this happens, it can certainly be detected. This process of checking the integrity of the context of the transmitted message is often called message authentication. The most recent and useful development in the uses of cryptography is the digital signature. Genesis and Application of Cryptography.
Let us understand the idea from the content of a battle; when cryptography is used to transform messages in order to conceal their meaning, two types of transformation are recognized: codes and cophers. The idea of a code comes from the large codebooks carried on shops and it lists a very large number of useful phrases such as ‘I am about to start an attack on the enemy battleship’ or ‘our ship has sustained a damage’. For each of these standard phrases used in an army, a code word is given, which is often just a number, chosen arbitrarily. For decoding a message, the same information is required, listed under the code words for ease of access. A codebook is an arbitrary transformation and is usually related to the meaning of the information to be transferred. The requirements of information technology (IT) are quite different. Genesis and Application of Cryptography.
Travails of Cryptovirology
Cryptovirology is known as the younger evil sibling of cryptography. It is a field devoted to the study of using cryptography for designing powerful malicious software. It was observed that public-key cryptography can be used to break the symmetry between what an antivirus analyst sees regarding a virus and what the virus writer sees. The former only sees a public key whereas the letter sees a public key and a corresponding private key. ‘Cryptoviral Extortion’ was the first attack identified in the field of cryptovirology. In this attack, a virus, worm or Trojan hybrid encrypts the victim`s files and the user must pay the malware author to revive the needed session key (Which is encrypted under the author`s public key that is contained the malware) if the user does not have backups and needs the files back.
Role Of cryptography is Information security
From electronic mail (e-mail) to cellular communications, from secure web access to digital cash, cryptography is an essential part of today`s IS. In the light of the discussion so far, we can see the cryptography helps provide accountability, fairness, accuracy, and confidentiality. It can prevent fraud in electronic commerce (e-commerce) and assure the validity of financial transactions. This can prove the ID of an entity or protect one`s anonymity. It can keep vandals from altering a web page and prevent industrial competitions from reading confidential documents. And in the future too, as commerce and communications continue to move to computer network does not provide the level of security it advertises. They find that most systems are nor designed and implemented in concert with cryptographers.
One cannot make the systems secure by taking on cryptography as an afterthought. Tere has to be a vision is being done at every step of info see the design, from conception to installation. A point to lament is the following; a large amount of money is spent on computer security, and most of it is wasted on insecure products. After all, a weak cryptography looks the same on the shelf as a strong cryptography. Two e-mail encryption products may have almost the same user interface, yet one is secure while the other permits eavesdropping. A comparison chart may suggest that the two programs have similar features. Although one has gaping security holes that the other does not have. An experienced cryptographer can tell the difference but so can a thief!